—Le Corbusier, Précisions (1929)
"Today, after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned."
—Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media (1964)
Towards the end of his life, in his last retrospective book My Work (1960), Le Corbusier published a full-page map of global flight paths, probably taken from Air France—the centre of the world is Paris—and wrote, "The world now has 24 solar hours at its disposal. Marco Polo took his time. Nowadays we say: 'Here are your papers, Sir, your contract and your airline ticket. Leaving at six tonight, you will be in the antipodes tomorrow. You will discuss, you will sign and, if you wish, you can start back the same evening and be home next day."
Air travel was revolutionised in the late 1950s with the arrival of commercial jetliners. The Caravelle and the Boeing 707 introduced by Air France in 1959 cut flight times in half with the company claiming to operate "the two best jets on the world's largest network", then covering 350,000 kilometres. But it is not just that space has collapsed with the introduction of rapid air travel; time has expanded. Le Corbusier had already foreseen the implications of this new condition for the architect. Practice is no longer local and time is continuous—almost a banality today when architectural offices with outposts in several cities around the world, connected through the Internet and by video conferencing, work 24 hours a day. As the New York office goes to sleep, the office in Beijing, for example, picks up a project that New York worked on the day before. And it is not just 24 hours but every day of the week. As Bernard Tschumi puts it, "Now you work around the clock, seven days a week. In Abu Dhabi, for example, Sunday is not a holiday. So you travel on Saturday and work on Sunday."
Le Corbusier saw this collapse of traditional space and time as nothing less than the emergence of a new kind of human.
5 January 1960
I am settled in my seat by now acquired number 5, alone, admirable one-man seat, total comfort. In 50 years we have become a new animal on the planet.* [S 501]
This posthuman is an animal that flies; the airline network is its "efficient nervous system", its web covering the globe. The hyper-mobile architect is a symptom of a globalised society in which humanity will be necessarily transformed. Nearing the end of a 50-hour set of continuous flights, Le Corbusier noted
30 November 1955 / 10pm Paris time = 6am Tokyo time
We will arrive in 2 hours. 50 hours in a plane. One could write a Condition Humaine on the basis of discovering-revealing aeroplane flight. [S 337]
Already in 1923 in his most famous book Vers une architecture, he had written about the aeroplane itself as "a product of high selection". And crossing the Atlantic in the Graf Zeppelin in 1936, he said he had discovered "a new fauna: the machines", which included the "fountain pen that you put in your pocket", as well as "the aeroplane that handles the overseas transports of people and letters", and which included "this Zeppelin in which I am writing at this very moment. I just had a look at the enchanting interior skeleton of the air vessel. What are its laws? Precise, dramatic, rigorous: economy."
The evolution of the aeroplane accelerated not only the speed of travel but also the speed of human transformation. The arrival of the ballistic logic of jet travel reconfigured both passenger and world:
The genius of the forms: the Super Constellation is beautiful: it is like a fish; it could have been like a bird… etc. But since the advent of the jets, a new threshold has been crossed: it is a projectile = a perforator and not a glider. [S 637]
Le Corbusier could be said to be the first global architect. In an age in which almost every architect is global, it is hard to appreciate how radical Le Corbusier's mode of operation was. As he wrote in one of his sketchbooks on the Ahmedabad— Bombay plane:
13 November 1955
Corbu is all over the world, travelling, his dirty raincoat in his arms, his leather satchel stuffed with business papers, with razor and toothbrush, brillantine for a few hairs, and his suit from Paris, which clothes him here in Tokyo or in Ahmedabad (without the vest). [S 440]
Starting in 1951, when he was hired as a consulting architect by the government of Punjab for the construction of a new capital in Chandigarh, Le Corbusier went to India a total of 23 times, traveling twice a year, and staying over a month each time. The pace was much slower than what he suggested in 1960. Required by his contract to travel Air India, a company he loved and compared very favourably over Air France, the typical itinerary took him from Paris to Geneva or to Rome, then to Cairo, Bombay and Delhi, where he traveled by car to Chandigarh and moved around by Jeep.
Despite the grueling schedule, he seemed to have been deliriously happy in the air, constantly making staccato entries next to the drawings in his sketchbooks. As he wrote in 1951 on the plane to Delhi:
Plane 2½ hours Paris—Rome
I have been in the plane since 2 o'clock Saturday. It is Monday noon. I am arriving in Delhi. I have never been so relaxed and so alone, engrossed in the poetry of things (nature) and poetry pure and simple (Apollinaire's Alcools and Gide's Anthologie) and meditation. [SS 628-29]
Le Corbusier took specific inspiration from the aeroplanes he lived in, paying attention to every little detail of the design.
Le Corbusier claims to be "at home in airborne India". He even had a seat reserved on Air India, "Number 5, called 'L-C seat'." The aeroplane is his "home", an "asylum of salvation". Le Corbusier becomes one with the aeroplane:
Zurich, 3 March 1961 /1:30pm
We take off in Air India, my usual seat Number 5 = huge space in "Super Constellation"… I refused the Boeing because it's American taste, even when run by the Indians! Constellation 550 km instead of 1,100. But here I am at home, in airborne India this aeroplane asylum of salvation. [SS 688-90]
If the aeroplane was the home of the new human, its details were prototypes for a new kind of house on the ground. Le Corbusier took specific inspiration from the aeroplanes that he lived in, paying attention to every little detail of the design. He admired the interior, the reclining chairs and the storage bins. He even requested drawings from the designer.
The tight economy of space in the aeroplane gave him ideas for his projects, just as the ocean liner and the car had once been the source of inspiration. In a sketch of a berth of an Air France plane he writes:
Constellation arrived New York 23 January 1949 a couchette makes an adorable nest for 2 to chat, oriental fashion. One would not dare build it in a house. [S 330]
Nevertheless, a few months later he used the sketch to plan the rooms of the Unité. And in 1961, on the Boeing to Delhi, he noted:
The cream white casing above the seat [could be used in the] Ville Radieuse dwelling in Marseille. [S 791]
Air India plane // zipper // A serious Japanese man (minister perhaps) has this soft wild boar's hide courier's bag // find out about that to replace mine. [S 104]
Even the outside decoration of planes became a key source of inspiration. Observing the bright gleaming paint on the metal fuselage, he developed the concept for the enamel painted doors of Chandigarh. But ultimately he wanted to redesign the space of an aeroplane himself. Seeing Air France as inferior to Air India, he repeatedly proposed that the French company "outfit their planes" in a more modern way. The dream never materialised, which may explain Le Corbusier's increasing diatribes against Air France. On a trip to India via Tokyo he wrote:
31 October 1955
Air France's "Super Constellation" plane is not "Super"… The 1st class (cabin) = a line of portholes overlooking engines the remainder 5 or 6 lines overlooking wings you don't see a thing. Sickening uproar! Air India… 1st class cabin = nice portholes, table, comfort, elegance of the woodwork. [S 323]
In 1957 he tried to propose a redesign of the Air France headquarters, writing to the head of the company,
This state of French inferiority. If L-C does Air France = international activity. [S 817]
In fact, Le Corbusier's real ambition seemed to be to design international activity itself. Le Corbusier's fascination with jet travel and the new space of global airline networks grew out of the relentless fascination with global communication that had structured his career from the beginning.
Even before transatlantic air travel became possible, Le Corbusier was dreaming of a global practice through publications. In his journal L'Esprit Nouveau, number 17 (1922), he published a map of the world with the location of subscribers to the journal, which reached six continents, with dots all over Europe but also in several countries in Africa, Asia, North and South America, and even Australia.
On his first trip to South America in 1929, Le Corbusier took his time, traveling by ocean liner to Montevideo and Buenos Aires, and then mostly by plane—accompanied by such pioneer aviators as Jean Mermoz and Antoine de Saint-Exupéry—staying from September to December in Buenos Aires, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. It was on this first trip that he developed the first sketches for the plan for Rio de Janeiro—60 kilometres of elevated highway with housing underneath. He returned in 1936, traveling in the Graf Zeppelin between Frankfurt and Rio de Janeiro via Recife. The flight was 68 hours to Recife alone. Oscar Niemeyer described him arriving like a god, first to step off the Zeppelin, after a rough landing that had worried the local architects eagerly waiting for him in the hangar.
Le Corbusier published, lectured and worked all over the world, developing urban plans—some of them unsolicited—for "Algiers, Stockholm, Moscow, Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro, Paris, Zurich, Antwerp, Barcelona, New York, Bogota, St.-Dié, Marseilles and Chandigarh", and completing buildings in such far away cities as Moscow, Rio de Janeiro, La Plata, Tokyo, Baghdad, Ahmedabad and Boston. As his global reach expanded, the space of his movements increased radically. His practice was finally unthinkable outside jet travel. If in the 1920s he was already fascinated with the global distribution of the subscribers, in 1960 he was obsessed with the architect's new kind of mobility.
At 19, LC sets out for Italy, 1907 Budapest, Vienna; in Paris February 1908, 1910 Munich, then Berlin. 1911, knapsack on back: Prague, Danube, Serbia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Turkey (Constantinople), Asia Minor. Twenty-one days at Mount Athos. Athens, Acropolis six weeks… Such was L-C's school of architecture. It had provided his education, opening doors and windows before him—into the future.
Le Corbusier drew a map of his journey, publishing it repeatedly from 1925 onwards, until the maps of jet travel took over. The path of the solitary student giving way to the nervous system of a new kind of human…
If international travel was the architectural education for Le Corbusier, who never went to architecture school, in the 1970s the Architectural Association (AA) in London under the leadership of Alvin Boyarsky became the first truly global school of architecture. Boyarsky, who went to the AA from Canada via Chicago, boasted that the school included students and faculty from 30 countries. That he was keeping count already indicates a high level of self-consciousness. In 1970, before he was elected AA chairman, as director of the International Institute of Design (IID), Boyarsky founded and coordinated from his kitchen table in Chicago the first Summer Sessions that took place at the Bartlett School of Architecture in London. In Boyarsky's account, this summer school programme brought together architects and students from "24 countries".
As if to emphasise the internationalism of the school, the advertisement for the Summer Session in 1972 had a multipleexposure image of an aeroplane (a sleek de Havilland Comet) taking off. The logo of the school was the front elevation of an aeroplane, the machine that made it all possible. The new Boeing 747 would soon become the fetish of a whole generation of students and teachers. Student Paul Shepheard did his diploma thesis at the AA on the 747 and many lecturers from Dennis Crompton to Bernard Tschumi were obsessed about its modernity, speed, size, comfort and affordability—as if describing an ideal building.
But it was not only jet travel that brought the Summer Sessions together. In what seems an anticipation of a more contemporary situation of electronic social networking, Boyarsky speaks of the success of the Summer Sessions as "cheered on particularly by the 'global village' servicing chats and by the example of the 'linking-up' forays performed by the optimists on the London scene". The objective of the Summer Sessions, according to Boyarsky, was simply "to provide a forum and a platform in an optimum setting… an opportunity for cross-fertilisation, interchange and first-hand contact".
Elected chairman of the AA on the basis of the extraordinary success and allure of the Summer Sessions, Boyarsky extended the same formula to the school itself. What had been a very British school, well known through its publications—many of which were little magazines produced by the students—became a truly global school of architecture. The school inaugurated a new form of pedagogy in architecture where the objective was not to educate the student architect in the profession (Boyarsky thought that this was something that could be learned in architectural offices) but to immerse the student in a global conversation. The AA had the first commuter teachers. From 1976 onwards Bernard Tschumi, for example, went to London from New York every two weeks.
The AA generation that circulated ideas through teachers and books would form the core of a new generation of global practitioners. Some of the best and most mobile teachers, such as Rem Koolhaas and Tschumi, and their students, for example Zaha Hadid and Steven Holl, would lead an international avant-garde with major projects throughout the world. A generation that grew up trafficking in ideas is now trafficking in projects. Members of an even younger generation, like Foreign Office Architects (Alejandro Zaera Polo and Farshid Mousavi), Asymptote (Hani Rashid and Lise Anne Couture), Reiser + Umemoto (Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto) and Carme Pinos, have had their first real opportunities to build outside of the United States or Europe. China, the United Arab Emirates and Latin America, for instance, have become the places for experimenting with ideas and where new figures are tested. The new economy of global movement envisaged by Le Corbusier, and prototyped in his own operation, has become normalised. The new kind of human he designed for, as if designing for himself, has become the generic client. Everyone moves in countless networks. From computer to cellphone, you no longer have to get on the plane. Everyone is already in seat number 5—a window seat.
*The quotations marked by a code number are taken from Le Corbusier Sketchbooks, vols. 1-4, MIT Press, Cambridge 1985. The code refers to the sketch number published in the book. 1. Le Corbusier, Le Corbusier, My Work, trans. James Palmes (Architectural Press, London 1960), p. 152. Originally published in French as L'Atelier de la recherche patiente (Paris 1960).
2. Bernard Tschumi, Interview with the author, New York, 25 August 2009.
3. Le Corbusier, Les tendances de l'architecture rationaliste en rapport avec la collaboration de la peinture et de la sculpture, written "on board the Zeppelin (Equator) 11 July 1935", presented at the Volta Congress, Rome, October 1936, FLC U3 (17) 90, p. 2. Published in Convegno di Arti, Fondazione Alessandro Volta, Reale Accademia d'Italia (Rome 1937), quoted by Jean-Louis Cohen in Sublime, Inevitably Sublime: The Appropriation of Technical Objects, in Le Corbusier: The Art of Architecture, ed. Alexander von Vegesack et al., exh. cat., Vitra Design Museum, Weil am Rhein. (Vitra Design Museum, London 2007), p. 224.
4. I am grateful to Vikram Prakash for his help in figuring out Le Corbusier's movements in India.
5. In 1951, for example, he reminds himself in a sketchbook: "On return [to] Paris // Write to Tata = congratulate him on plane Bombay—Delhi leaving 29 October 1951 at 8:30am ask him for drawings of the plane + drawings of the reclining armchairs (remarkable) // for 226 x 226 x 226." Le Corbusier sketch 625, 1951, in Le Corbusier Sketchbooks, vol. 2.
6. "11 June 1949. Room 1 // room 2 // cross-section inspired by Air France Constellation 22 February 1949 Paris—New York." Le Corbusier sketch 331, 22 February, 1949, in Le Corbusier Sketchbooks, vol. 1.
7. Le Corbusier sketches 276–277, 360, 1959, in Le Corbusier Sketchbooks, vol. 4.
8. Le Corbusier sketch 123, 24 July 1954, in Le Corbusier Sketchbooks, vol. 3.
9. Le Corbusier traveled to Rio in the Graf Zeppelin, "the magnificent 237-metre German airship that, between 1928 and 1937, made 143 impeccable transatlantic flights. 'I went to meet him.'… Le Corbusier descended from the air, 'a mighty god visiting his pygmy worshippers,' says Niemeyer" Jonathan Glancey, I Pick Up My Pen. A Building Appears, in The Guardian, The Arts (1 August 2007), p. 23. "The 13th of July of 1936, all the architects of the project of the MES were waiting for him in the hangar of the Zeppelin, 45 km from the centre of Rio de Janeiro. A wretched landing had them very worried but Le Corbusier was first off the plane." "Interview with Carlos Leão", Rio de Janeiro 1981, quoted in Elizabeth D. Harris, Le Corbusier: Riscos Brasileiros (Nobel, São Paulo 1987)
10. Le Corbusier, My Work, p. 50
11. Ibid., p. 21
12. Boyarsky described it as "an unusually active commuting axis embroidered by a network of lecture circuits and sundry snoops on both sides of the Atlantic" and went on to talk about the "kaleidoscopic nature" of applicants coming from "every corner of the world": "Oslo, Santiago, Zurich, Cincinnati, Stuttgart, Trondheim, Sydney, Buenos Aires, Helsinki, New Delhi, Ljubljana, Washington, DC, etc." Alvin Boyarsky, Summer Session, 1970, in Architectural Design 41, no. 4 (April 1971), p. 220. By the next Summer Session in 1971, the outreach had expanded even further to Tokyo, Lima, Ankara, Guadalajara, Brisbane, Ahmedabad, Yokohama, Stockholm, Chicago, etc.
15. Bernard Tschumi, interview with the author, August 2009
17. Alvin Boyarsky, interview by Bill Mount, 1980, in Alvin Boyarsky's archives in London. Cited by Irene Sunwoo, Pedagogy's Progress: Alvin Boyarsky's International Institute of Design, in Grey Room 34 (Winter 2009), p. 31.